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Travel and Camp on Durable Ground

Beyond leaving only footprints, a new awareness of impact


New Zealand Research

  • Squires, C. (2007). An assessment of trampling impact on alpine vegetation, Fiordland and Mount Aspiring National Parks, New Zealand. Unpublished Master of Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • McCrone, A, Visitor impacts on marine protected areas in New Zealand, 2001, Science for Conservation no. 173 , DOC
  • Cessford, G.R. 1995a.`Off-Road Impacts of Mountain Biking: A Literature Review and Discussion.' Science and Research Series No. 92. Science and Research Division. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
  • Doorne, S. (1999) Visitor experience at the Waitomo Glowworm Cave. Science for Conservation 95. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
  • Schmekal, A.A. (2001) Condensation as a Microclimate Process: Measurement and Analysis in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Auckland.
  • Ward, J., Burns, B., Johnson, V., Simmons, D.G. and Fairweather, J.R. (2000) Interactions between Tourists and the Natural environment: Impacts of Tourist Tramping on Geothermal Vegetation and Tourist Experiences at Geothermal Sites in Rotorua. Tourism Research and Education Centre Report No. 16 Lincoln University, Canterbury.


International Research

  • Camp, R.J., Knight, R.L. 1998. Effects of rock climbing on cliff plant communities at Joshua Tree National Park, California. Conservation Biology, 12 (6), 1302-1306 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.97363.x/abs/

  • Cole, D. 1990. Trampling disturbance and recovery of cryptogamic soil crusts in Grand Canyon National Park. Great Basin Naturalist 20:321-326 http://leopold.wilderness.net/pubsResults.cfm?searchType=Publication&Pub=215

  • Cole, David N. 1993. Trampling effects on mountain vegetation in Washington, Colorado, New Hampshire, and North Carolina. USDA Forest Service Res. Pap. INT-464. 56p.

  • Cole, D.N., 1995. Experimental trampling of vegetation. I. Relationship between trampling intensity and vegetation response. Journal of Applied Ecology 32 :203-214.

  • Cole, David N. 1995. Recreational trampling experiments: effects of trample weight and shoe type. Research Note INT-RN-425.

  • Cole, D.N. 1995. Disturbance of natural vegetation by camping: experimental applications of low-level stress. Environmental Management. 19 :405-416. http://leopold.wilderness.net/pubsResults.cfm?searchType=Publication&Pub=266

  • Cole, David N.; Monz, Christopher A. 2004. Spatial patterns of recreation impact on experimental campsites. Journal of Environmental Management 70: 73-84. Available at: http://leopold.wilderness.net/pubsResults.cfm?searchType=Publication&Pub=686

  • Hassig, D. W. 1991. A preliminary investigation of conditions of soil and ground cover vegetation on campsites closed to use in the Adirondack High Peaks Wilderness Area (New York). Thesis. State University New York, Syracuse, New York. 77pp.

  • Hawkins, J. P., Roberts, C. M. 1993. Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs - trampling on reef-flat communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 30 (1) :25-30

  • Jenkins, Carolyn. And Ashley Olson and Jennifer L. Ruesink. 2001. Watch Your Step: Impacts of Trampling on a Rocky Shoreline of San Juan Island, Washington. Department of Zoology, University of Washington

  • Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 1999. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks. 17(4): 20-38.Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 

  • Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2000. Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: A state-of-knowledge review. In: Cole, D.N. and others (eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change; Vol 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management, pp. 23-48; May 23-27, 1999, Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol-5. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. http://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/science1999/volume5.htm

  • Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2004. Managing impacts of campsites. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. pp. 245-258.>

  • Marion, Jeffrey L. and Yu-Fai Leung. 2004. Environmentally sustainable trail management. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. pp. 229-244.

  • Reid, Scott E. and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2004. An adaptive management assessment of new camping policies in Shenandoah National Park. Environmental Conservation 31(4):274-282.>

  • Sun, D., Liddle, M. J. 1993. A survey of trampling effects on vegetation and soil in eight tropical and subtropical sites. Environmental Management. 17 (4) :497-510.

  • Other places to look for research on mountain biking